Financial Times

definition of Technology

Pioneers like Vasco da Gama, Cabral, Magellan and Christopher Columbus explored the world looking for new commerce routes for his or her goods and contacts with Africa, India and China to shorten the journey compared with traditional routes overland. They produced new maps and charts which enabled following mariners to discover additional with greater confidence. Navigation was typically troublesome, nevertheless, owing to the problem of longitude and the absence of correct chronometers. European powers rediscovered the idea of the civil code, misplaced because the time of the Ancient Greeks. Further newly created techniques and gadgets have been spiral staircases, the chain drive, sliding calipers and showers.

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The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first purpose constructed railway line, opened in 1830, the Rocket locomotive of Robert Stephenson being one of its first working locomotives used. The revolution was driven by low-cost energy within the form of coal, produced in ever-increasing quantities from the plentiful assets of Britain. The British Industrial Revolution is characterized by developments within the areas of textile machinery, mining, metallurgy and transport the steam engine and the invention of machine tools. An improved sailing ship, the (nau or carrack), enabled the Age of Exploration with the European colonization of the Americas, epitomized by Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis.

The Egyptians, identified for building pyramids centuries before the creation of modern instruments, invented and used many simple machines, such as the ramp to aid construction processes. Historians and archaeologists have found proof that the pyramids have been constructed utilizing three of what is known as the Six Simple Machines, from which all machines are based. The screw, the last of the simple machines to be invented, first appeared in Mesopotamia in the course of the Neo-Assyrian interval ( ) BC. The Assyrian King Sennacherib (704–681 BC) claims to have invented automated sluices and to have been the first to use water screw pumps, of up to 30 tons weight, which had been cast utilizing two-half clay molds rather than by the ‘lost wax’ course of. The Jerwan Aqueduct (c. 688 BC) is made with stone arches and lined with waterproof concrete.

The Antikythera mechanism, a sort of analogous laptop working with a differential gear, and the astrolabe both show nice refinement in astronomical science. In music, the water organ, invented by Ctesibius and subsequently improved, constituted the earliest instance of a keyboard instrument. In time-preserving, the introduction of the inflow clepsydra and its mechanization by the dial and pointer, the applying of a suggestions system and the escapement mechanism far superseded the sooner outflow clepsydra.

Mesopotamia (trendy Iraq) and its peoples (Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians and Babylonians) lived in cities from c. 4000 BC, and developed a classy structure in mud-brick and stone, together with the usage of the true arch. The walls of Babylon have been so massive they have been quoted as a Wonder of the World. They developed in depth water methods; canals for transport and irrigation in the alluvial south, and catchment methods stretching for tens of kilometers within the hilly north.